Digital Photography Cameras

So what are digital photography cameras? 

A digital photography camera (or digicam) is a camera that encodes images digitally and stores them (without the use of film) for later reproduction. Most cameras sold today are digital. 
 
Digital cameras use a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device, known as an image sensor. The diaphragm and shutter work together to admit the correct amount of light to the sensor, just as with film but the image sensor is electronic rather than chemical. Digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded (unlike film cameras) and store and delete images from memory. Almost all modern day digital cameras can also record moving videos with sound. Some can crop and stitch pictures together along with performing other elementary image editing. To view a list of digital photography cameras rated most highly by online reviews click this link "What's the best digital camera?"

Types of digital photography cameras

Compact Cameras and Smart Phones.

A compact camera
Compact cameras are intended to be portable, pocket size, and are particularly suitable for casual "snapshot" photography. Almost all modern smart phones have a built in digital camera. With the camera quality and the photo quality improving on smart phones their usage for snapshot photography is becoming ever more popular, However, it is highly unlikely that the quality of a smartphone camera photo will ever improve significantly enough to replace a dedicated digital camera for serious photographers.

Bridge Cameras

Bridge cameras physically resemble DSLR cameras and are sometimes referred to as DSLR shape or DSLR like. They provide some similar features but, like compacts, they use a fixed lens and a small sensor. The usual autofocus of bridge cameras is the same contrast detect mechanism used in compact cameras. Many  modern day bridge cameras have a manual focus mode and some have a separate focus ring for greater control.
Bridge cameras are usually fitted with fixed lenses (non interchangeable). Their large physical size and small sensor allow super zoom and wide aperture. Bridge cameras generally include an image stabilization system to enable longer handheld exposures. Some have a lens thread to attach accessories such as a wide angle or telephoto converter. Many of these cameras can store images in a either a raw NEF image format, favoured by professional photographers, or compressed JPEG format.

D S L R Cameras

The term digital single lens reflex camera or  DSLR refers to the internal  mechanism where light enters through the lense and is reflected via a simple mirror up through a prism and into the eyepiece of the camera for the photographer to see. Just as the shutter is pressed the mirror is flipped allowing the light passing through the lens to enter into the chamber onto the light sensitive sensors for a predetermined time and a predetermined quantity of light. The time of the exposure is referred to as the shutter speed and the quantity of light is controlled by the aperture and is measured by f. numbers.
Click the following link to view a list of the functions and features of digital cameras.