Digital Camera Lenses.

Digital Camera Lenses

Choosing the right digital camera lenses to fit on your camera will make a huge difference to the quality of photo that you take. Your images rely more on the quality of the lenses than the quality of the camera body itself.  It's the lens that zooms in closer to your subject, zooms out away from the subject or distorts the subject. Its the fact that lenses can distort and compress perspective that allows us to witness micro objects close up or craters on the moon far away in the distance. They do this by clearly transmitting millions of rays of light through a configuration of lens elements and onto a flat light receiving surface.
A simple pair of glasses on a sunny day will demonstrate how at a given point away from an object a lens will focus the light into a single point. Similarly a basic lens of only one element will focus light rays upside down at a single point onto a flat light receiving surface inside your camera. 
Modern lenses are composed of many different configurations intended to gather light rays of may different wavelengths (colours). Lenses come in different sizes and are made for different purposes. The main classification used to differentiate between lenses is to refer to its focal length. Put quite simply his is the distance from the lens to the light receiving sensor in your camera. For example a 135 mm lens will be 135 mm, from your cameras sensor. 

Different types of digital camera lenses

Standard Lens

 A standard lens is usually a 30 mm lens or a 50 mm lens on a 35 mm digital SLR camera. The image created by this lens is the closest representation to the image seen by the human eye. It shows no distortion and usually has a wide maximum aperture making it a good lens for low light photography. 

Wide Angle Lens

A wide angle lens is any lens with a focus below standard that shows a distorted prospective. They are useful for subjects confined in a small space. For example, a large group of people in a small room. Although these lenses offer a wide view they can make faces appear very rounded at a close distance and can cause straight lines to look curved. These digital camera lenses are most widely used to take landscape photography.

Macro Lens

The term "Macro lens" can apply to many different focal lengths of digital camera lenses which are typ[cally used for very close up studies of small subjects such as flower heads  and insects. Macro lenses will often have a narrow depth of field  creating an out of focus aerea around the outside of the focal point.

Telephoto Lens

A telephoto lens is a lens that brings distant objects closer and is usually a 50 mm lens for a DSLR camera. In doing so though they make the view narrower and the backgrounds appear nearer to the subject than they actually are. Telephoto lenses can be ideal for portraiture photos. 

Fish Eye Lens

devils bit scabious
This lens is an ultra wide angle lens, usual between 4 and 16 mm. At its widest it can produce a circular photograph. It can record images from 180 to 220 degrees around the camera and is mostly only used for special effects photography.
Taken with a macro lens

Zoom Lens

Zoom lenses are becoming more and more popular and  not surpringly so. They are several lenses combined into one. This helps the photographer to not miss out on a photo opportunitty by having to change lenses as circomstances dictate. Zoom lenses range from wide angle to standard, from standard to telephoto and even wide angle to telephoto.  

Tilt And Shift Lens

Both the tilt and shift lenses are photography accessories used mainly by professional photographers primarily for taking photos of very tall objects such as multi storey buildings. The purpose of the lenses is to keep the vertical lines of the subject parallel to each other. For example, if you look up at a very tall building the sides of the building appears to taper inwards the higher up the building goes. These lenses are designed to counter this. With the progression of technoledgey both tilt and shift features can now be found in a single lens, the features of the lenses are.
          A tilt lens (the lens tilts at an angle to the aperture).
          A shift lens (the lens can be moved inline with the aperture).